In almost any culture, an ancient royal couple would have been expected to have provided themselves with a superior, monumental, or otherwise unique final resting place. 3 Problems to Remember When Trying to Find Atlantis. The Mystery of JFK’s Brain: How Did it Disappear? The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts, Floki and the Viking Discovery of Iceland.,, Even if they do have European or Mediterranean lineage, this wouldn’t necessarily mean that they had to be descended from a lost Roman legion since the town is adjacent to the old Silk Road, making intermarriage with distant travelers at any time more likely. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More, Arguments Against the Lost Roman Legion in Liqian Theory. This tactic of tightly squared units utilized shields for the first row to cover their body. How Were the Terracotta Soldiers Made? Mass Grave Found in the Netherlands: A Case of Medieval Slaughter? Since Rome and China were aware of each other in antiquity, and it was possible to travel between the two empires at the time, this hypothesis is made more plausible. Arikamedu in present-day Tamil Nadu was a Roman settlement dating 100-200 BC indicating trade between India and Rome was enduring and extensive. Partially restored by Augustin Pajou. He feels fortunate to have been able to visit many of the ancient wonders that he read about in history books. In antiquity, it was near the fringes of the Roman Empire in the west and the Parthian Empire in the east. Also, the physical appearance and genetic relations of the villagers doesn’t require that they be directly descended from Mediterranean peoples, since there are many central Asian ethnic groups that also have genetic ties to the Mediterranean region and traits such as blonde or brown hair and blue eyes. Lenovo Legion Slim 7i—World's lightest 15.6" gaming laptop with RTX *Based on research conducted by Lenovo (August 10, 2020) on consumer laptops sold by major gaming PC manufacturers shipping more than one million units worldwide annually. (, Italy’s Quest for the Ark of the Covenant. The identification is based upon coin effigies. Date published 1972 Bookseller catalogs WORLD WAR II / GERMAN & EASTERN FRONT; Items with Photos; List 84; Terms of Sale. There, the Romans founded a city called Lijien (also Liqian or Lijian), the word that the Chinese used for legion. A Net Inceptions project. Directed by James Gray. Legion Y27gq-25 Monitor. He was also allegedly beheaded, and his body was desecrated. Li-Jien is the very foundation of the whole theory, the building block that may spout a magnificent discovery coated in the marble of history changing impact…or just a great and ultimately sad story. As the founder of Historic Mysteries, his goal is to share with you the secrets of our past. Emperor Yuandi established a new county called Lijian (Liqian) or Li-jien, which, according to Hucker, is a name that reflects the Roman legion. Parallels Between The Jewish Fall Festival And Akhenaten’s Royal Jubilee. Could this boy be a relative of an ancient Roman? U.S. National Library of Medicine, February 2007. Is it possible that the inhabitants of the unusual village could be descendants of displaced Romans? New scientific findings suggest that images and hieroglyphics on the wooden statue were carved with the jaw of a beaver, its teeth intact. The Powerful Symbol of the Swastika and its 12,000 Year History, Ancient Anomalous Human Skeletons: Humanity Could be Much Older Than We Think, Where are Ashkenazi Jews from? ( CC0). “Testing the Hypothesis of an Ancient Roman Soldier Origin of the Liqian People in Northwest China: a Y-Chromosome Perspective.” Journal of human genetics. For this reason, any contact between the cultures has fascinated historians ever since Western scholars began to study China and Chinese scholars began to study the West. | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | DMCA Notice, This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Does the Brewer Cave Story Unlock a Hidden History? As I read this article I wondered if any graves from the period have been discovered. Roman Concrete: How Volcanic Material Created an Empire. Some have used this to argue that the name is originally derived from the word. It is possible that a Roman legion did make it to China, but the evidence is not conclusive. Because the legend has been popularized, the town has used it to attract tourists, even going as far as to construct Roman style buildings and statues. Mysterious Cocaine Mummies: Do They Prove Ancient Voyages Between Egypt and Americas? The goal of Ancient Origins is to highlight recent archaeological discoveries, peer-reviewed academic research and evidence, as well as offering alternative viewpoints and explanations of science, archaeology, mythology, religion and history around the globe. Die verlorene Legion Following the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han possibly captured over a thousand prisoners. if this legion had come from the Egyptian or Greek speaking provinces the name of the town could still be of Roman origins. While the two sides were negotiating an end to the fight, the Parthians captured Crassus and also beheaded him. A modern representation of Roman soldiers. Excavations in Zhelaizhai unearthed a trunk with stakes, which the Romans commonly used to build fortifications. (Neil Carey/ CC BY SA 2.0 ). He believed that around 50 BCE, the soldiers ended up as prisoners of war. Available at:, I have a bachelor's degree in earth science but I minored in anthropological archaeology and have attended an archaeological field school. J. Scalzo (ed. In fact “Licinius” was the major family name: Crassus and Lucullus were “cognomen” branches of the “nomen” Licinius.). Their Origins May Surprise You, Do you dare enter a fairy ring? We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. After all, there have been Jewish people who settled up in old chinese capital cities Luoyang and Kaifeng and preserved their traditions. By nightfall, the battle was all but over. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. Proponents of this theory have searched for Liqian and believe that they have found it. In days of old, the dead were buried with a silver coin (the shiner the better) so that the souls of the faithful departed could pay the toll to the deathless demon ferryman of the underworld: Charon. What is interesting about the town is that the people living there have traits such as brown hair and blue eyes, which contrast with the appearance of most of the surrounding people. Georgia Guidestones: Who Paid for It and Why? That would settle the question. At Ancient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. I understand that the story of the lost legion may seem dubious; anyway, there have been many greek westerners who eventually settled up in Gansu / Ningxia, such as merchants following Sogdia/Bactria caravans or Nestorius followers who spreaded everywhere in the area after their faith was declared an heresy. Alan Ladd, Actor: Shane. Pseudo archaeology, and some of its more controversial claims, have long been the subject of extensive debate among mainstream scholars and the general public. Los Angeles Times . Etruscans Transported Bees by Boat to Reach the Best Flowers! © 2009-2020 Historic Mysteries. Another issue is that it is unlikely that the name Li-Jien is related to the word legion. I may have left you wondering the significance of this seemingly innocuous place. The fate of the 10,000 captured Legionnaires remained a mystery. The nature of its disappearance in the early second century AD - if it ever truly disappeared at all – has sparked a wealth of interest from the media and academia, as a result it is now immortalised in thousands of words of print and rolls of film. I am especially interested in classical Greek history... Read More, Is it possible that the name of Li-Jian or Li-Qian could have come, not from the word “Legion”, but from Crassus’s middle name – Licinius? Public domain. Military Books. A 2005 DNA analysis of residents in Zhelaizhai indicates that approximately 56 percent have genetic sequences similar to Europeans. Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus located in the Louvre, Paris. Khan, Razib. Was there ever a Trojan War? 5 Giugno 2013 di Angelo Paratico The battle of Carrhae ended fifty-three years before the birth of Jesus Christ, on the last day of May. The Bringer of Souls: The Stork Myth In Ancient Pan-European Beliefs, The Disturbing True Story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin, The Real Story of Medusa: Protective Powers from a Snake-Haired Gorgon, Charon, Son of Night and Shadow, Ferrier of the Dead, Beaver's teeth 'used to carve the oldest wooden statue in the world’, Uncovering Ancient Pyramid Science at Teotihuacan, Where Men Become Gods, Jewelry to Die For: 14th-Century Bulgarian Ring with a Killer Dose. Ancient Origins © 2013 - 2020Disclaimer - Terms of Publication - Privacy Policy & Cookies - Advertising Policy - Submissions - We Give Back - Contact us. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. Indo-Europeans had spread out into Central Asia well before the Imperial Roman period. Of the surviving Roman soldiers, 10,000 of them were captured alive by the Parthians. However, the analysis did not determine that they derived from Southern Europe, as experts would expect if they originated in Italy. According to legend, liquid gold was poured down his throat as a punishment for his greed. The Legend of the Lost Legion of Carrhae The legend begins in 53 BC with the Battle of Carrhae between the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus and the Parthian general Surena. CC 2.0 Neil Carey. Were Neanderthal Thumbs Better Adapted for Tennis? Watch Queue Queue The fish-scale formation was known to China, which had been using the strategy during the first millennium BCE. Naupa Iglesia: An Egyptian Portal in the Andes? The defeat took place at the Battle of Carrhae, located in eastern Turkey, where the Roman fought against 10,000 Parthian archers against seven Roman legions led by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Marcahuasi: Vestiges of a Forgotten Global Civilization, or Just Weird Rocks in Peru? This was a uniquely Roman practice. Top Image:  A man in Liqian, China. It is believed that they were most likely sent to what is now Turkmenistan. Charles Hucker proposed that the Roman legionaries may have been amongst the Xiongnu soldiers. This includes stories like that of the lost legion of Carrhae, whose members may have ended up in Liqian, China. Groom of the Stool: Was The King’s Toilet Guy The Worst Job Ever? Date published 1972 Bookseller catalogs WORLD WAR II / GERMAN & EASTERN FRONT; Items with Photos; List 84; Terms of Sale. This has attracted the interest of both Chinese and Western scientists. Chinese records indicate that in 36 BCE at the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han captured the Xiongnu, led by Zhizhi Changyu in Central Asia, in a place known today as Dzhambul, Uzbekistan, in 36 BCE. Consequently, Dubs believed that the residents of Zhelaizhai may be the descendants of the lost Roman legion in China. These problems do not rule out the theory, but they also leave it unconfirmed. Roman legions had names, typically based on where they were originally located. On the other hand, many scholars have doubts about the feasibility of the hypothesis. Consequently, this may have led to the furthest eastward expansion of the Roman Empire’s military and cultural influence. I remember reading about a test they can do on bones that tells where a person grew up (sorry don’t remember what it’s called). Roman Testudo tortoise shell formation. This idea was first suggested by the historian Homer Dubs. They are also cultures that appear to have been mostly isolated from each other. As the story goes, the Han victors were highly impressed by the skills of the soldiers. Scientists indicated that a complete study of mtDNA (maternal lineage) is necessary to complete the assessment. “The Western Regions According to the Hou Hanshu.” The Han Histories. Around 2010 David Gu dropped out of the underground scene and Dani reestablished ownership. Author Degrelle, Leon Format/binding Hardcover Book condition Used - Fine Jacket condition Fine Binding Hardcover Publisher Schutz, 1972. Discover Magazine, October 21, 2019. Approximately 15,000 Roman soldiers managed to escape, but 10,000 others became prisoners. The Roman style pot could have been gained through trade, and the other artifacts are not uniquely Roman. This tactic of tightly squared units utilized shields for the first row to cover their body. Available at:, “How Did Crassus Die?” by N.S. Another connection that has been noted is that the name “Li-Jien” sounds like “legion” when spoken in Chinese. A genetic study from the University of Lanzhou showed that the inhabitants of the town do have connections to Europe, which makes the theory more plausible, though it is also true that the town is built along the old Silk Road so connections with western populations are more likely regardless of whether they were Roman. This question continues to go unanswered by the academic and archaeological world. Celtic mercenary soldiers fought in Central Asia and Asia in Turkey, Judea, Syria, and against the Seleucid Empire pre-imperial Rome. Thus, even if there is a connection to the western Mediterranean world, it is more likely a Greek connection rather than a Roman connection, according to this view. However, the Roman legions used this strategy throughout the … Military Books. The Parthians beheaded Crassus’ son and killed 20,000 Roman soldiers. A Roman Legion Lost in China. Chinese villagers 'descended from Roman soldiers' Genetic testing of villagers in a remote part of China has shown that nearly two thirds of their DNA is of Caucasian … By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. From ancient aliens, creation myths, and races of giants, these subjects are part of a very obscure niche of historical research. Carrhae is a location near the modern-day Syrian-Turkish border. Die Verlorene Legion. ( Public Domain ). Of course the Indo-European culture was fairly wide spread. Therefore, they moved them further east to the new outpost of Liqian (Li-Chien) in the Gansu province. In 53 BCE, a humiliating defeat for a Roman army set off a chain of events. History of the Ancient World . Testudo formation. However, it's certainly a mystery that Liqian people still look like westerners 2000 years after the facts. Commodus – the Outrageous Emperor who Fought as a Gladiator, New Research Shows that Some Ancient Egyptians Were Naturally Fair-Haired. When the Hun Jzh Jzh capital was captured by the Ch’en dynasty of China (that is the battle depicted in the painting described by the ancient document) Dubs asserts that the Romans were captured and resettled within the Chinese Empire as the garrison of the town of Li-Jien, supposedly the Chinese version of the word ‘Latin’ – their nationality. ThoughtCo. The fish scale formation impressed the Chinese and they invited the soldiers to come back to China and become part of the border guard in the modern Gansu province. / Tell Us Your Best Ghost Story, Harvard Scientists Say That There May Be An Ancient Earth Inside Earth, Legendary heroes who have inspired us through the ages, Rapidly Melting Norwegian Ice Exposes Land Littered with Ancient Arrows, Tech Reveals A Little Girl Mummy Who Doesn’t Look Like Her Portrait, Unidentified Salt God Emerges from Ancient Bulgarian Cult Site. According to some accounts, they were relocated to the eastern border of the Parthian Empire. The Nephilim: Giant Offspring of the Sons of God and the Daughters of Man? Dating back 11,000 years - with a coded message left by ancient man from the Mesolithic Age - the Shigir Idol is almost three times as old as the Egyptian pyramids. Also, at least one Roman helmet with Chinese lettering puzzled researchers, and a strange passion exists for bulls. Whether or not Roman military had a presence in southeast India has yet to be revealed. Zhou, Ruixia, Lizhe An, Xunling Wang, Wei Shao, Gonghua Lin, Weiping Yu, Lin Yi, Shijian Xu, Jiujin Xu, and Xiaodong Xie. Just because it is … Turkmenistan: the Bradt Travel Guide. Continue reading: The appearance of the villagers and the discovery of unusual artifacts has led many believers in the legend to identify Zhelaizhai with Liqian. Accessed March 14, 2020. Li-Jien. The following rows covered their heads. But Why is the Plumed Serpent Ubiquitous? Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? It was a Parthian custom to send prisoners of war captured in the west to the far east to secure their loyalty against their eastern rivals, the Huns. Evidence shows that the people of Zhelaizhai had lined the ancient streets with tree trunks. However, neighboring cities do not. It was common practice of Romans to name new towns after *people*… and while Marcus Licinius Crassus may have lost his final battle, a legion which ended up in exile and founded a home-from-home far away may well have named it “Licinia” after him as an ironic tribute – the man who more than anyone else was responsible for them being there, both in his prosecution of an unnecessary war and for the disastrous tactics which led to their defeat. Rome and China are two major civilizations that shaped the cultures within their sphere of influence. And, even though there is circumstantial evidence, there is no evidence that would confirm that Romans had been in Liqian in the past. From there, the mercenary soldiers helped the Han Chinese defend against Tibetan raids. Freewalt, Jason, and Joseph Scalzo. His mother was English, from County Durham, and his paternal grandparents were … Jim has always had a strong passion for travel, archaeology, and history. Italy’s Quest for the Ark of the Covenant. The Tarim mummies of Xinjiang, China, are just one example of this. If we read from... What’s Behind Increasing Paranormal Activity? View All Close. Archaeologists now believe Liqian became present-day Zhelaizhai, China. Accessories & Monitors. All rights reserved. Rebirth and Rejuvenation: How Have Ancient New Year’s Traditions Influenced Festivities Today? The mythical mushroom portals of the supernatural, Sky Burial: Tibet’s Ancient Tradition for Honoring the Dead. Interesting history topics are just a click away. One thing that is for certain, however, is that the people of Liqian stand out from the surrounding people in the region, a fact that remains unexplained. In July 1952 it was back in Central Vietnam, operating near Phu Vang and around Da Nang. Laptops. This video is unavailable. The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania: Deadly Wasps Once Prevented its Destruction. Historic Mysteries is an Amazon Associate and earns from qualifying purchases. When the owner and founder, Dani Li, decided to move back to Beijing, China in 2008, he sold the label to an Australian named David Gu. Tunnels to the Sun: Exploring the Mysterious Ravne Tunnels in Bosnia, Last of the Kings of Egypt: The Ptolemaic Dynasty, The Dispilio Tablet - the oldest known written text, Butrint National Park, Preserving the Rise and Fall of an Ancient City. According to Fan Ye’s 5th century “Hou Han Shu”, Liqian was what the Chinese called the Roman Empire. Chinese records indicate that in 36 BCE at the Battle of Zhizhi, the Han captured the Xiongnu, led by Zhizhi Changyu in Central Asia, in a place known today as Dzhambul, Uzbekistan, in 36 BCE. "Rome and China: connections between two great ancient empires." In early 1952, the 1st GA was operating in the Mekong Delta. Bearded Gods of the Americas Were Jesus Resurrected?! Brummell, Paul. Despite his prior conquests, many people questioned his military leadership. These Uyghur girls are genetically similar to a few residents of Liqian, today’s ZhelaiZhai. Zhelaizhai is a modern village near Lanzhou. In 20 BCE, under Caesar Augustus, negotiations regarding the return of these soldiers only compounded the mystery. Dubs argued that some of the soldiers in exile gave up trying to go back to Rome and hired themselves out as mercenaries for local warlords in the region. A map of China’s Han Empire available during this same period showed a county named Liqian. View All Close. ), The Roman Republic and Empire, HIST532 K001 Spi  14 (2014). Source: Johnathon Kos-Read/ CC BY ND 2.0. A true-life drama, centering on British explorer Major Percival Fawcett, who disappeared whilst searching for a mysterious city in the Amazon in the 1920s. However, his success would not last. In the battle, Crassus and his army suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Surena and his 10,000 archers. Another study from 2007 determined that according to paternal (Y) lineage DNA, the people of Zhelaizhai are not descendants of Romans. Available at:, “Digging for Romans in China” by Henry Chu (2000). The leader’s inexperience became apparent the day he led 45,000 soldiers into battle against the very prepared and mobile Parthian cavalry in Carrhae, now known today as Harran, Turkey. A city and county were also made for them which were named Li-Jien or Liqian. The Chinese annals record mercenaries fighting on the side of the Huns who used a “fish scale” formation. The Chinese description of the fish scale formation used by the mercenary soldiers bears a vague resemblance to the testudo formation practiced by Roman legions. ( The Unz Review ). And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained. This has led to the popular theory that these mysterious soldiers were in fact exiled Roman legionnaires from the Battle of Carrhae who had hired themselves out as mercenaries for the Huns. On the contrary, their DNA was similar to that of the Uygurs of the Xinjiang Province of Western China, who possess Northern European ancestry (Khan).


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