Video compilation showing various aspects of ALMA. A talk on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), by Leonardo Testi. Ahlarkapin Observatory Tour - San Pedro de Atacama Chile . The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, which observe electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This is one of the first strikes to affect an astronomical observatory. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) -the largest astronomical project in existence- is a single telescope of revolutionary design, composed of 66 high precision antennas located on the Chajnantor Plateau, 5000 meters altitude in northern Chile. The Cerro Armazones, 3,060 meters in height, situated in the Atacama desert some 130 km south of Antofagasta, Chile, was the site chosen to install the telescope largest in the world -known as European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), which also aspired Spain, as reported by the Council of European Southern Observatory (IT). Beide Spiegel sind, The ACT Collaboration; Fowler; Acquaviva; Ade; Aguirre; Amiri; Appel; Barrientos et al. This 16-minute video presents the history of ALMA from the origins of the project several decades ago to the recent first science results. Das Atacama Cosmology Telescope ACT ist ein Radioteleskop zur Untersuchung des kosmischen Mikrowellenhintergrunds (CMB). The 130-ton ALMA antenna transporter "Otto" during its naming ceremony. The Ahlarkapin Observatory is located in San Pedro de Atacama and run by local guides. [35], The Atacama Compact Array, ACA, is a subset of 16 closely separated antennas that will greatly improve ALMA's ability to study celestial objects with a large angular size, such as molecular clouds and nearby galaxies. This video shows the antenna being moved on the giant transporter called "Otto". The 12-meter-diameter dish was manufactured by the European AEM Consortium and also marks the successful delivery of a total of 25 European antennas — the largest ESO contract so far. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA. Teleskop und Instrumentierung sind ausgelegt für Untersuchungen der Unregelmäßigkeiten des kosmischen Mikrowellenhintergrunds und für die Entdeckung von Galaxienhaufen durch ihre vom Sunyaev-Zeldovich-Effekt bewirkte lokale Veränderung des Mikrowellenhintergrunds. Taiwan joins the ALMA Project through Japan. On 28 July 2011, the first European antenna for ALMA arrived at the Chajnantor plateau, 5,000 meters above sea level, to join 15 antennas already in place from the other international partners. Posted By: Hiker June 30, 2015. Das Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) ist ein internationales Radioteleskop-Observatorium in den nordchilenischen Anden. The initial ALMA array is composed of 66 high-precision antennas, and operates at wavelengths of 3.6 to 0.32 millimeters (31 to 1000 GHz). [14] The first antenna was delivered in 2008, the last in 2011.[15]. They are powered by twin turbocharged 500 kW Diesel engines. [23] These early images give a first glimpse of the potential of the new array that will produce much better quality images in the future as the scale of the array continues to increase. This location was chosen for its high elevation and low humidity, factors which are crucial to reduce noi… This video shows ISS astronauts congratulating the ALMA Partners on the occasion of its inauguration. Empty Print Email; Details Tours Excursions II Region of Antofagasta. Sixteen 12-m antennas in the 12-m array. Japan constructed 16 Antennas. The plan is for the site to host a much larger array of all three classes of CTA telescopes spread over 4 square kilometers: four Large-Sized … The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, Location of Atacama Large Millimeter Array, The first two ALMA antennas linked together as an, Three ALMA antennas linked together as an interferometer for the first time, ALMA prototype-antennas at the ALMA test facility, July 2008 NRAO ALMA newsletter article by Dr. Al Wootten, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan, Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, After a Tough Year, ALMA's Star Begins to Rise at Last, removing excessive or indiscriminate images, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, "Alma telescope peers into space from Chile's mountains", "ALMA Inauguration Heralds New Era of Discovery", "At the End of the Earth, Seeking Clues to the Universe", "Alma telescope: Ribbon cut on astronomical giant", "ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array", "Ground breaking ceremony for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)", "National Radio Astronomy Observatory - Legacy Content - ALMA (CV)", Chile's ALMA probes for origins of universe, "General Dynamics Receives $169 Million to Build 12-Meter Antennas for Advanced Radio Telescope",,, "Monster Moves, Season 5, Episode 6: Mountain Mission", "European ALMA antenna brings total on Chajnantor to 16", "Birth of Planets Revealed in Astonishing Detail in ALMA's 'Best Image Ever' - NRAO: Revealing the Hidden Universe", "RELEASE 14-038 - NASA's 3-D Study of Comets Reveals Chemical Factory at Work", "Event Horizon Telescope Captures First Image of Black Hole | Astronomy |", "Phosphine gas in the cloud decks of Venus", "Scientists find gas linked to life in atmosphere of Venus", "No phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus", "First Light for Band 5 at ALMA - New receivers improve ALMA's ability to search for water in the Universe", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, ALMA Observatory: ALMA Selects New Director, "New 2012 ALMA Video Compilation Released", "ALMA Compact Array Completed and Named After Japanese Astronomer", "Workers at Earth's largest radio telescope in Chile strike over pay, working conditions", "Workers strike at world's largest radio telescope", "ALMA resumes operations after end of workers' strike", "COVID-19 (coronavirus) Measures at ALMA", "ALMA Residencia Handed Over - New accommodation for staff and visitors at ALMA site in Chile", How the Huge ALMA Radio Telescope Works (Infographic), An optical system design for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network, Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility,, Articles with infoboxes completely from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array. Dezember 2018 um 16:19 Uhr bearbeitet. The European ARC (led by ESO) has been further subdivided into ARC-nodes[34] located across Europe in Bonn-Bochum-Cologne, Bologna, Ondřejov, Onsala, IRAM (Grenoble), Leiden and JBCA (Manchester). Mit einem zweiten 2-m-Spiegel. [31], The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. Das Hauptinstrument ist eine Bolometerkamera (Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, MBAC) mit neuartigen supraleitenden Transition Edge Sensors für drei Frequenzen zwischen 145 GHz und 280 GHz. The array has been constructed on the 5,000 m (16,000 ft) elevation Chajnantor plateau - near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. Erste Ergebnisse wurden 2010 veröffentlicht[2] und es wurden Gravitationslinseneffekte beobachtet[3] und erste Hinweise auf Dunkle Energie allein aus dem CMB[4]. The work stoppage began after the observatory failed to reach an agreement with the workers' union. The final antenna for the project is here seen arriving to the high site at the observatory, 5000 meters above sea level. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. Share the excitement of the inauguration ceremony and contemplate the breathtaking images from ALMA itself and views of its unique environment in the Atacama Desert. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. By the summer of 2011, sufficient telescopes were operational during the extensive program of testing prior to the Early Science phase for the first images to be captured. TOPICS: astronomy atacama chile desert high altitude trip report. ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) is the world's largest ground-based facility for observations in the millimeter/submillimeter regime located on the Chajnantor plateau, 5000 meters altitude in northern Chile. Gordon Gillet, ESO. Oktober 2007 first light. ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan. ACT ist ein 6-m-Teleskop[1] in einer Höhe von 5148 m am Cerro Toco in der Atacama-Wüste in Nordchile. Moonrise above the 12 meter wide access road to the ALMA High Site. On 30 September 2013 the final ALMA antenna was handed over to the ALMA Observatory. Seine Antennenanlage besteht aus 66 mobilen, ausrichtbaren Parabolantennen, mit meist 12 m Durchmesser, die über Entfernungen von bis zu 16 km verteilt werden können und zu einem Interferometer-Radioteleskop zusammengeschaltet werden. Time-lapse video at the ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS). ALMA was initially a 50-50 collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and European Southern Observatory (ESO) and later extended with the help of the other Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chilean partners. [27], ALMA participated in the Event Horizon Telescope project, which produced the first direct image of a black hole, published in 2019. Final European / North American agreement, with 50% of funding from ESO, and 50% of funding shared between USA and Canada. Die Atacama-Wüste in Chile gehört nicht nur zu den trockensten Orten dieser Welt, nachts ist es dort auch besonders dunkel. The array has been fully operational since March 2013.[5][6]. Start of Early Science Cycle 0. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA's stringent requirements. Opening of Joint ALMA office, Santiago, Chile. This location was chosen for its high elevation and low humidity, factors which are crucial to reduce noise and decrease signal attenuation due to Earth's atmosphere. Testing of first prototype antenna begins at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF) site in Socorro, New Mexico. [37], In August 2013, workers at the telescope went on strike to demand better pay and working conditions. European, North American & Japanese draft agreement, with Japan providing new extensions to ALMA. ACT wird gemeinsam von 17 Institutionen aus den USA (unter anderem der Princeton University), Kanada, Mexiko, Chile, Südafrika und Großbritannien gebaut und betrieben und hauptsächlich von der National Science Foundation finanziert. This video begins near the ground of the Chajnantor Plateau, at 5000 meters altitude in the Chilean Andes, and later takes in views of the 58 antennae that make up the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. [16] The solution chosen is to use two custom 28-wheel self-loading heavy haulers. This video clip shows the distinguished guests, including the President of Chile, Sebastián Piñera, arriving at the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located at an altitude of 2900 meters in the Atacama Desert in Chile for the inauguration of the giant telescope. [2] Costing about US$1.4 billion, it is the most expensive ground-based telescope in operation. Japan has provided the first of twelve 7-meter antennas to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory in Chile. It also delayed the cycle 8 proposal submission deadline and suspended public visits to the site.[44]. ("Alma" means "soul" in Spanish and "learned" or "knowledgeable" in Arabic.) The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array. The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. In 2013, the Atacama Compact Array was named the Morita Array after Professor Koh-ichiro Morita, a member of the Japanese ALMA team and designer of the ACA, who died on 7 May 2012 in Santiago. The complex was built primarily by European, U.S., Japanese, and Canadian companies and universities. On 7 July 2008, an ALMA transporter moved an antenna for the first time, from inside the antenna assembly building (Site Erection Facility) to a pad outside the building for testing (holographic surface measurements).[19]. First move of an ALMA antenna to Chajnantor. The antennas forming the Atacama Compact Array, four 12-meter antennas and twelve 7-meter antennas, were produced and delivered by Japan. Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter's wide-field imaging capability. Zusammen mit Folgebeobachtungen könnte die Entdeckung vieler Galaxienhaufen zum Verständnis der Strukturentwicklung im Universum und der Dunklen Energie beitragen. Alma – Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array – heißt das gigantische Teleskop im nördlichen Chile. The guests are shown with one of the giant ALMA transporters as well as other components. By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. The target of the observation was a pair of colliding galaxies with dramatically distorted shapes, known as the Antennae Galaxies. A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of "Atacama Large Millimeter Array", or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. Start of Early Science Cycle 2. Thirty-two 12-m antennas in the 12-m array. Those who self-identified as Peruvians or Bolivians were expelled. (in HD). [32] Its current director since February 2018 is Sean Dougherty.[33]. memorandum of understanding for design & development. Ähnliche Ziele verfolgt das South Pole Telescope, das ebenfalls 2007 first light sah. ESOcast 51: Video report about the ALMA correlator. Der CMB wird mit einer Auflösung von einem Millionstel Grad vermessen und einer Winkelauflösung im Bogenminuten-Bereich. The vehicles were made by Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik [de][17] in Germany and are 10 m wide, 20 m long and 6 m high, weighing 130 tonnes. The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable "zoom", similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States. The ACT Collaboration; Sherwin; Dunkley; Das; Appel; Bond; Carvalho; Devlin et al.,, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. [1] ALMA is expected to provide insight on star birth during the early Stelliferous era and detailed imaging of local star and planet formation. European, North American & Japanese amend agreement on the Enhanced ALMA.


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