In practice, however, the choice of members is made by the political parties. Like the House of Representatives, the Senate meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. At one end of the chamber of the Senate is a dais from which the presiding officer presides. – Senate 98-29", "U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives", "Temporary Appointment of US Senator Shall not be a candidate in special election", "Democrat Kyrsten Sinema will be Arizona's senior U.S. senator", "Senate Chamber Desks – Names Listed inside the Desk Drawer", "World's greatest deliberative body watch", "Senate reform: Lazing on a Senate afternoon", "How majority rule works in the U.S. Senate",, "Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview",, "Filibusters and arcane obstructions in the Senate", The Origination Clause of the U.S. Constitution: Interpretation and Enforcement, The Invention of the United States Senate, Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics, Bills for Raising Revenue Under the Federal and State Constitutions, "This Is What Happened Last Time a Cabinet Nomination Was Rejected", Taking Text and Structure Seriously: Reflections on Free-Form Method in Constitutional Interpretation, U.S. senator bibliography (congressional memoirs), The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Once the need for a delay has ended, a senator may request unanimous consent to rescind the quorum call. The next-largest party is known as the minority party. The party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution, sets three qualifications for senators: (1) they must be at least 30 years old; (2) they must have been citizens of the United States for at least nine years; and (3) they must be inhabitants of the states they seek to represent at the time of their election. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution disqualifies as senators any federal or state officers who had taken the requisite oath to support the Constitution but who later engaged in rebellion or aided the enemies of the United States. Electoral College deadlocks are rare. The approval of both houses is required for any bill, including a revenue bill, to become law. During debate, senators may only speak if called upon by the presiding officer, but the presiding officer is required to recognize the first senator who rises to speak. [9], Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. [55][56][57][58] Historically, the Senate has disputed the interpretation advocated by the House. A senator, however, may challenge the presiding officer's assessment and request a recorded vote. The Capitol Police handle routine police work, with the sergeant at arms primarily responsible for general oversight. This provision, which came into force soon after the end of the Civil War, was intended to prevent those who had sided with the Confederacy from serving. The recess appointment remains valid only temporarily; the office becomes vacant again at the end of the next congressional session. The drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress primarily as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be equally represented, and those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain. As a result, four senators who failed to meet the age requirement were nevertheless admitted to the Senate: Henry Clay (aged 29 in 1806), John Jordan Crittenden (aged 29 in 1817), Armistead Thomson Mason (aged 28 in 1816), and John Eaton (aged 28 in 1818). Committee chairmen have less power and are generally more moderate and collegial in exercising it, than they were before reform. The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote. ", For an example, and a discussion of the literature, see, Article One of the United States Constitution, Current members of the United States Senate, Article I, Section 3, of the Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, blanket primary is considered the general election, Presiding Officer of the United States Senate, Party leaders of the United States Senate, Closed sessions of the United States Senate, Senate Building, Washington DC, HD from 35mm, Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, List of African-American United States senators, United States presidents and control of Congress, "In Fight for Control of Congress, Tough Skirmishes Within Parties", "The Rapid Sequence of Events Forcing the Senate's Hand: A Reappraisal of the Seventeenth Amendment, 1890–1913", "Party In Power – Congress and Presidency – A Visual Guide To The Balance of Power In Congress, 1945–2008". November 2020 die Zusammensetzung dieser oberen Kammer des Kongresses der Vereinigten Staaten bestimmt. However, motions for cloture have increased significantly in recent years. Contact   |   Elections to the Senate are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, Election Day, and coincide with elections for the House of Representatives. Les élections se déroulent en novembre, en même temps que le scrutin qui désigne les représentants, et, une fois sur deux, en même temps que l'élection présidentielle. By custom, the leader of each party sits in the front row along the center aisle. In most of these states, the nominee may receive only a plurality, while in some states, a runoff is required if no majority was achieved. Officials whose appointments require the Senate's approval include members of the Cabinet, heads of most federal executive agencies, ambassadors, justices of the Supreme Court, and other federal judges. 3: Master of the Senate, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, The United States Senate Official Website, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to Present, Chart of all U.S. Senate seat-holders, by state, 1978–present, A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825, Bill Hammons' American Politics Guide – Members of Congress by Committee and State with Partisan Voting Index, First U.S. Senate session aired by C-SPAN, United States Senate Calendars and Schedules, Information about U.S. Bills and Resolutions, Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Operations, Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence,, Legislative branch of the United States government, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Infobox legislature with background color, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Seventeenth Amendment requires that vacancies in the Senate be filled by special election. Generally, each party honors the preferences of individual senators, giving priority based on seniority. Dabei standen 35 der 100 Senatssitze zur Wahl, regulär die 33 Senatoren der Klasse II und Nachwahlen in Arizona (für das Mandat des verstorbenen John McCain) und in Georgia (für den Sitz des … Senators who were not in the chamber when their name was called may still cast a vote so long as the voting remains open. The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—constitutes the legislature of the United States.The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.. In practice, senators rarely request quorum calls to establish the presence of a quorum. In Louisiana, the blanket primary is considered the general election and the winner of the blanket primary can win the overall election if he or she received a majority of the vote, skipping the run-off. An agrarian law would soon take place. The Senate has also censured and condemned senators; censure requires only a simple majority and does not remove a senator from office. The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—constitutes the legislature of the United States. PDF Help   |   The filibuster is a tactic used to defeat bills and motions by prolonging debate indefinitely. Similarly, the president may make congressional-executive agreements with the approval of a simple majority in each House of Congress, rather than a two-thirds majority in the Senate. The majority of nominees are confirmed, but in a small number of cases each year, Senate committees purposely fail to act on a nomination to block it. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began. During its early years, however, the Senate did not closely scrutinize the qualifications of its members. Floor leaders act as the party chief spokesmen. In 2004, Alaska enacted legislation and a separate ballot referendum that took effect on the same day, but that conflicted with each other. Nun zeigt sich: Die Demokraten halten ihre Mehrheit in … [13] Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation gradually led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators.[14]. Usage Policy   |   Sitzverteilung im 117. This is accomplished by limiting all Senate floor debate to 20 hours. The "majority party" is the political party that either has a majority of seats or can form a coalition or caucus with a majority of seats; if two or more parties are tied, the vice president's affiliation determines which party is the majority party. The latter identifies executive resolutions, treaties, and nominations reported out by Senate committee(s) and awaiting Senate floor action. Whenever a senator must be appointed or elected, the secretary of the Senate mails one of three forms to the state's governor to inform them of the proper wording to certify the appointment of a new senator. Some senators have opted to withdraw from their re-election races rather than face certain censure or expulsion, such as Robert Torricelli in 2002. On occasion, the Senate may go into what is called a secret or closed session. Another official is the sergeant at arms who, as the Senate's chief law enforcement officer, maintains order and security on the Senate premises. In November 1972, Joe Biden was elected to the Senate at the age of 29, but he reached his 30th birthday before the swearing-in ceremony for incoming senators in January 1973. Auch im Senat wird der Kampf um die Sitzverteilung extrem knapp. [7], First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate. So help me God. Sitzverteilung im US-Senat 100 Sitze Für Präsident Barack Obama und die Demokraten hatte der Verlust der kleinen Kongresskammer enorme Konsequenzen: Unter dem Mehrheitsführer Mitch McConnell verhinderten die Republikaner, dass von Obama nominierte Bundesrichter und auch Richter des Obersten Gerichtshofs tatsächlich im Amt bestätigt wurden. Sessions of the Senate are opened with a special prayer or invocation and typically convene on weekdays. The most-junior "senior senator" is Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona, who was sworn in on January 3, 2019, and is 92nd in seniority, ahead of Martha McSally who was also sworn in on January 3, 2019, and is 94th in seniority, with Sinema being senior due to her being sworn in first.[30]. The vote is closed at the discretion of the presiding officer, but must remain open for a minimum of 15 minutes. Der Senat der Vereinigten Staaten (englisch United States Senate) ist neben dem Repräsentantenhaus eine der beiden Kammern des Kongresses der Vereinigten Staaten, eines Zweikammer-Parlaments (Bikameralismus) nach britischer Tradition. Frequently, freshmen senators (newly elected members) are asked to preside so that they may become accustomed to the rules and procedures of the body. The length of these speeches is not limited by the rules; thus, in most cases, senators may speak for as long as they please. Upper house of the United States Congress, Powers, privileges, procedure, committees, history, and media, Article I, Section 3: "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; each Senator shall have one vote. If the vice president is not present, the motion fails. For instance, the Constitution provides that the president may make an appointment during a congressional recess without the Senate's advice and consent. The remaining thirty-six states provide for gubernatorial appointments, "with the appointed senator serving the balance of the term or until the next statewide general election". Furthermore, as the Supreme Court held in Myers v. United States, although the Senate's advice and consent is required for the appointment of certain executive branch officials, it is not necessary for their removal. The presiding officer calls on senators to speak (by the rules of the Senate, the first senator who rises is recognized); ruling on points of order (objections by senators that a rule has been breached, subject to appeal to the whole chamber); and announcing the results of votes. Senators serve terms of six years each; the terms are staggered so that approximately one-third of the seats are up for election every two years. In Washington, California, and Louisiana, a nonpartisan blanket primary (also known as a "jungle primary" or "top-two primary") is held in which all candidates participate in a single primary regardless of party affiliation and the top two candidates in terms of votes received at the primary election advance to the general election, where the winner is the candidate with the greater number of votes. A hold may be placed for any reason and can be lifted by a senator at any time. [47] In 1973, the House adopted a rule that all committee sessions should be open unless a majority on the committee voted for a closed session. [29] In the 116th Congress, the most-senior "junior senator" is Maria Cantwell of Washington, who was sworn in on January 3, 2001, and is currently 18th in seniority, behind Patty Murray who was sworn in on January 3, 1993, and is currently 6th in seniority. Le Sénat comprend actuellement cent membres, élus pour six ans et renouvelables par tiers tous les deux ans. Lee, Frances E. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I. Vol. Die Bezeichnung leitet sich vom Römischen Senat ab, der Sitz befindet sich im Nordflügel des Kapitols in Washington, D.C. [48] The former identifies bills and resolutions awaiting Senate floor actions. The Senate also has several committees that are not considered standing committees. The Senate's legislative and executive business is managed and scheduled by the Senate majority leader. The Constitution empowers the House of Representatives to impeach federal officials for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors" and empowers the Senate to try such impeachments. [28], Along with earning salaries, senators receive retirement and health benefits that are identical to other federal employees, and are fully vested after five years of service. However, when the Senate originates an appropriations bill, the House simply refuses to consider it, thereby settling the dispute in practice. Each state is equally represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. "The Term of A Senator – When Does It Begin and End? Senators, sitting in the 116th United States Congress. The Constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Federal Government. The Senate, therefore, ought to be this body; and to answer these purposes, the people ought to have permanency and stability. Hence, the power of joint committees is considerably lower than those of standing committees. Coordinates: 38°53′26″N 77°0′32″W / 38.89056°N 77.00889°W / 38.89056; -77.00889. All three trials ended in acquittal; in Johnson's case, the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction. The lower tier of the dais is used by clerks and other officials. 62, James Madison justified this arrangement by arguing that the "senatorial trust" called for a "greater extent of information and stability of character". These include the approval of treaties, and the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, ambassadors, other federal executive officials and federal uniformed officers. The Constitution authorizes the Senate to elect a president pro tempore (Latin for "president for a time") who presides over the chamber in the vice president's absence, and is, by custom, the senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service. If no candidate receives a majority of electors for vice president, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. They are now elected by popular vote following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. [49] Committee chairs are elected, but, in practice, seniority is rarely bypassed. Within the United States, the Senate is sometimes referred to as "world's greatest deliberative body".[38][39][40]. Insgesamt 100 Sitze  Dem. A legislative day begins when the Senate convenes and ends with adjournment; hence, it does not necessarily coincide with the calendar day. In 2006, the average annual pension for retired senators and representatives under CSRS was $60,972, while those who retired under FERS, or in combination with CSRS, was $35,952. Die Wahlen zum Senat der Vereinigten Staaten 2018 fanden am 6. (1998). The following are published by the Senate Historical Office. Die Bezeichnung leitet sich vom Römischen Senat ab, der Sitz befindet sich im Nordflügel des Kapitols in Washington, D.C. Other employees include the chaplain, who is elected by the Senate, and pages, who are appointed. [41], Under certain circumstances, the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 provides for a process called "reconciliation" by which Congress can pass bills related to the budget without those bills being subject to a filibuster. Such bodies are generally known as select or special committees; examples include the Select Committee on Ethics and the Special Committee on Aging. A bill can be held for as long as the senator who objects to the bill wishes to block its consideration. However, the Constitution's Origination Clause provides that "All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives". Bei der Wahl im Jahr 2020 wurden insgesamt 35 Sitze neu gewählt. If the Senate invokes cloture, debate does not necessarily end immediately; instead, it is limited to up to 30 additional hours unless increased by another three-fifths vote. IV, Historical Statistics, 1789–1992, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 22:02. The Congress includes joint committees, which include members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives. The other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. FERS has been the Senate's retirement system since January 1, 1987, while CSRS applies only for those senators who were in the Senate from December 31, 1986, and prior. [32] It is a tradition that each senator who uses a desk inscribes his or her name on the inside of the desk's drawer.[33]. [54] As a result, the Senate does not have the power to initiate bills imposing taxes. Closed sessions are rare and usually held only when the Senate is discussing sensitive subject matter such as information critical to national security, private communications from the president, or deliberations during impeachment trials. Although the Constitution gave the House the power to initiate revenue bills, in practice the Senate is equal to the House in the respect of spending. However, the right to unlimited debate is generally preserved. Historically, cloture has rarely been invoked because bipartisan support is usually necessary to obtain the required supermajority, so a bill that already has bipartisan support is rarely subject to threats of filibuster. This arrangement was also followed after the admission of new states into the union. The presiding officer sometimes uses the gavel of the Senate to maintain order. Derzeit ist noch nicht klar, welche der beiden Parteien eine Mehrheit von mindestens 51 Sitzen erreichen wird. [24], The annual salary of each senator, since 2009, is $174,000;[25] the president pro tempore and party leaders receive $193,400. [22] Because the 17th Amendment vests the power to grant that authority to the legislature – not the people or the state generally – it is unclear whether the ballot measure supplants the legislature's statute granting that authority. Seit der Verabschiedung des 17. [25][26] In June 2003, at least 40 senators were millionaires;[27] in 2018, over 50 senators were millionaires. Senate procedure depends not only on the rules, but also on a variety of customs and traditions. One hundred desks are arranged in the chamber in a semicircular pattern and are divided by a wide central aisle. [citation needed], The Senate also has a role in ratifying treaties. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the Senate has the power to elect the vice president if no vice presidential candidate receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College. Committees may be established on an ad hoc basis for specific purposes; for instance, the Senate Watergate Committee was a special committee created to investigate the Watergate scandal. Many non-member officers are also hired to run various day-to-day functions of the Senate. This was achieved by dividing the senators of the 1st Congress into thirds (called classes), where the terms of one-third expired after two years, the terms of another third expired after four, and the terms of the last third expired after six years. Conviction requires a two-thirds majority of the senators present. II, a topical series of addresses on various aspects of the Senate's operation and powers, Vol. Jeder Bundesstaat ist nach dem Anteil an der Gesamtbevölkerung im Repräsentantenhaus vertreten. If the sitting president of the United States is being tried, the chief justice of the United States presides over the trial. The Senate is widely considered both a more deliberative[2] and more prestigious[3][4][5] body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, and statewide constituencies, which historically led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The starting amount of a senator's retirement annuity may not exceed 80% of their final salary. Bills and nominees are not referred to joint committees. [18] If a special election for one seat happens to coincide with a general election for the state's other seat, each seat is contested separately. In the general election, the winner is the candidate who receives a plurality of the popular vote. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority. The Senate uses Standing Rules for operation. Angegeben ist das Jahr, in dem die Wahl stattfand, und die daraus resultierende Sitzverteilung (nicht berücksichtigt sind Änderungen während der Legislaturperiode). In the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore, who is traditionally the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. Originally, senators were selected by the state legislatures, not by popular elections. not for a full term). [42], When debate concludes, the motion in question is put to a vote. The rules of the Senate provide that no senator may make more than two speeches on a motion or bill on the same legislative day. Standing committees also oversee the departments and agencies of the executive branch. From 1789 to 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states they represented. [15] In 1934, Rush D. Holt Sr. was elected to the Senate at the age of 29; he waited until he turned 30 (on the next June 19) to take the oath of office. In other cases (for example, for the budget process), limits are imposed by statute. Senators address the Senate standing next to their desks.[37]. Privacy Policy   |   Some joint committees oversee independent government bodies; for instance, the Joint Committee on the Library oversees the Library of Congress. Furthermore, each standing committee considers presidential nominations to offices related to its jurisdiction. A 2018 report breaks this down into the following three broad categories (specific procedures vary among the states):[19], In six states within the final category above – Arizona, Hawaii, Maryland, North Carolina, Utah, and Wyoming – the governor must appoint someone of the same political party as the previous incumbent. The House elects the president if the Electoral College deadlocks on that choice. Discover the histories, traditions, and arrangements of senators' desks. Sitzverteilung im Senat in den USA nach Midterm-Wahlen 2018; Sitzverteilung im Repräsentantenhaus in den USA nach Midterm-Wahlen 2018; US-Wahl 2020: Umfrage zur Akzeptanz des Wahlausgangs; US-Wahl 2020 - Trump vs. Biden: Anzahl der Wahlmänner und Wahlfrauen ; US-Wahl: Trump vs. Biden - Umfragewerte in den USA 2020 ; US-Wahl 2020: Umfrage zum Grund der Wahlentscheidung der … In most cases, cloture requires the support of three-fifths of the Senate; however, if the matter before the Senate involves changing the rules of the body – this includes amending provisions regarding the filibuster – a two-thirds majority is required. Formally, the whole Senate appoints committee members. The presiding officer puts the question, and Members respond either "Yea/Aye" (in favor of the motion) or "Nay" (against the motion). Kongress. Each senator chooses a desk based on seniority within the party. The manner by which the Seventeenth Amendment is enacted varies among the states. The effect of the ballot-approved law is to withhold from the governor authority to appoint a senator. Das Repräsentantenhaus der Vereinigten Staaten ist – in der Tradition der Zweikammer-Parlamente , die im britischen Parlament ihren Ursprung hat – neben dem Senat eine der beiden Kammern des Kongresses der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.


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