[9][10] Heine greatly admired Napoleon as the promoter of revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality and loathed the political atmosphere in Germany after Napoleon's defeat, marked by the conservative policies of Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich, who attempted to reverse the effects of the French Revolution. ("That was but a prelude; where they burn books, they will ultimately burn people as well." Heine reluctantly began a relationship with her. When he was 18 Heine almost certainly had an unrequited love for his cousin Amalie, Salomon's daughter. Rest assured, I love the Fatherland just as much as you do. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— For Heine, this was a reversal of values: reactionary Austria standing up for the Jews while revolutionary France temporised. The censorship in Hamburg was relatively lax but Campe had to worry about Prussia, the largest German state and largest market for books (it was estimated that one-third of the German readership was Prussian). In 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncle's bank, but displayed little aptitude for business. [1] He spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine ( German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈhaɪnə]; 13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic. [4] Heine's father, Samson Heine (1764–1828), was a textile merchant. [75] Correspondingly, during the rise of the Third Reich, Heine's writings were banned and burned. Heine looked down on these writers on aesthetic grounds – they were bad poets in his opinion – but his verse of the 1840s became more political too. Nightly I see you in dreams – you speak, Mich wird umgeben [4] Heine's father, Samson Heine (1764–1828), was a textile merchant. Heine repeated the trip with his wife in July–October 1844 to see Uncle Salomon, but this time things did not go so well. Dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen (Heinrich Heine).svg 1,800 × 1,350; 428 KB Engel-Heine Saemtliche Werke-Supplementband 1884.pdf 625 × 987, 364 pages; 5.21 MB Heine atta-troll.jpg 2,574 × 2,039; 1.67 MB In 2006 Philips/Universal launched a republication on CD. Salomon left Heine and his brothers 8,000 francs each in his will. [40], In Paris, Heine earned money working as the French correspondent for one of Cotta's newspapers, the Allgemeine Zeitung. Wer selber brachte sich um; While at first the plan met with enthusiasm, the concept was gradually bogged down in anti-Semitic, nationalist, and religious criticism; by the time the fountain was finished, there was no place to put it. In 1822 it introduced a law excluding Jews from academic posts and Heine had ambitions for a university career. [48][49], In October 1843, Heine's distant relative and German revolutionary, Karl Marx, and his wife Jenny von Westphalen arrived in Paris after the Prussian government had suppressed Marx's radical newspaper. Where shall I, the wander-wearied, Other events conspired to make Heine loathe this period of his life: he was expelled from a student fraternity for anti-Semitic reasons and he heard the news that his cousin Amalie had become engaged. [17], After a year at Bonn, Heine left to continue his law studies at the University of Göttingen. Wilhelm Killmayer set 37 of his poems in his song book Heine-Lieder, subtitled Ein Liederbuch nach Gedichten von Heinrich Heine, in 1994. He almost reached me. He possessed that divine malice without which I cannot imagine perfection... And how he employs German! Within the pantheon of the "Jewish cultural intelligentsia" chosen for anti-Semitic demonization, perhaps nobody was the recipient of more National Socialist vitriol than Heinrich Heine. Heine began to acquire a reputation as a poet at Bonn. In December Heine met the Marxes and got on well with them. No one expected it to become one of the most popular books of German verse ever published, and sales were slow to start with, picking up when composers began setting Heine's poems as Lieder. Find my haven and my shrine? He had developed various techniques for evading the authorities. By the setting sun Then the ancient stony gods will rise from the forgotten debris and rub the dust of a thousand years from their eyes, and finally Thor with his giant hammer will jump up and smash the Gothic cathedrals. Poems of Heinrich Heine, Three hundred and Twenty-five Poems, Translated by Louis Untermeyer, Henry Holt, New York, 1917. I stood at the cross-road and sighed Or upon the well-loved beaches, His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities—which, however, only added to his fame. Wo wird einst des Wandermüden The empress commissioned a statue from the sculptor Louis Hasselriis. In the play it is the Muslim Hassan, who is saying these words, when he heard that the Christian conquerors had burned the scriptures of the Quran at the marketplace of Granada. To commemorate the terrible event, one of the most famous lines of Heine's 1821 play Almansor was engraved in the ground at the site: "Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen." He also had an Enlightenment view of the past, seeing it as mired in superstition and atrocities. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— Heine, however, continued to comment on German politics and society from a distance. [34] After a few months he took a trip to northern Italy, visiting Lucca, Florence and Venice, but was forced to return when he received news that his father had died. [76][77], During the Nazi regime, Heinrich Heine became discredited as author of popular German folksongs (i.e. Whether he then transferred his affections (equally unsuccessfully) to her sister Therese is unknown. In 1824 Heine began a historical novel, Der Rabbi von Bacherach, which he never managed to finish. dort wächst eine blaue Blume, Ultimately Heine's ideas of revolution through sensual emancipation and Marx's scientific socialism were incompatible, but both writers shared the same negativity and lack of faith in the bourgeoisie. [29] An example are these lines: Das Fräulein stand am Meere A garland of cypress for token. The couple had no children. Und laut aufweinend stürz ich mich Though he would later mock Schlegel, Heine found in him a sympathetic critic for his early verses. Monuments and memorials to Heinrich Heine‎ (21 C, 40 F) P ... Signatures of Heinrich Heine‎ (4 F) T Things named after Heinrich Heine‎ (14 C, 1 F) Pages in category "Heinrich Heine" The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. Wider spaces there than here. Du siehst mich an wehmütiglich, Und gibst mir den Strauß von Zypressen. (Poetic translation by Hal Draper). The French Revolution and subsequent Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars involving Germany complicated Düsseldorf's political history during Heine's childhood. It was first ruled by Joachim Murat, then by Napoleon himself. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——, Heine went to England to avoid what he predicted would be controversy over the publication of this work. And shake your golden curls; In May 1848, Heine, who had not been well, suddenly fell paralyzed and had to be confined to bed. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— I seek in vain in all the realms of millennia for an equally sweet and passionate music. He had a sister, Charlotte, and two brothers, Gustav Heine von Geldern (later Baron Heine-Geldern and publisher of the Viennese newspaper Fremden-Blatt [de]) and Maximilian, who became a physician in Saint Petersburg. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. Düsseldorf was then a small town with a population of around 16,000. Most German states were absolutist monarchies with a censored press. His mother Peira (known as "Betty"), née van Geldern (1771–1859), was the daughter of a physician. Buried by a stranger's hand? If the two countries understood one another there would be progress. With kindliness sincerest, The first volume of travel writings was such a success that Campe pressed Heine for another. Thus Heine's formative years were spent under French influence. He was sceptical about the Frankfurt Assembly and continued to attack the King of Prussia. Under palms will I be buried? Many composers have set Heine's works to music. Julius Campe and first literary successes, Julius Campe and first literary successes. Many composers have set Heine's works to music. [74] Editors for the Völkischer Beobachter referred to Heine's writing as degenerate on multiple occasions as did Alfred Rosenberg. For the German train route, see, Heinrich Heine: Poet of Judenschmerz Jewish Biography as History Dr. Henry Abramson, Klassiker der Weltliteratur: Heinrich Heine - Deutschland: Ein Wintermärchen | BR-alpha, Count von Platen, target of Heine's satire in, Heine's wife "Mathilde" (Crescence Eugénie Mirat). Immerhin! Sturm und Drang Over a Memorial to Heinrich Heine. Suicide’s flower. His uncle now decided to send him to the University of Berlin.[18]. Bundesgesundheitsbl – Gesundheitsforsch – Gesundheitsschutz 2005, 48 (2):246–250 (in German), Richard S. Levy, Heine Monument Controversy, in, Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland, revolutions which broke out in France and Germany, "Heroes – Trailblazers of the Jewish People", https://archive.org/stream/TheMythOfTheTwentiethCentury_400/MythOfThe20thCentury_djvu.txt, Buffalo News. The former is based on his journey to Germany in late 1843 and outdoes the radical poets in its satirical attacks on the political situation in the country. His move was prompted by the July Revolution of 1830 that had made Louis-Philippe the "Citizen King" of the French. Und schüttelst das blonde Köpfchen; His quote about burning books is prominently displayed in the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum in Jerusalem. [38][39], Heine soon became a celebrity in France. At the cross-road will be buried [50] Thereafter Heine and Marx maintained a sporadic correspondence, but in time their admiration for one another faded. Und laut aufweinend stürz ich mich When the revolution collapsed, Heine resumed his oppositional stance. He was called "Harry" in childhood but became known as "Heinrich" after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. In 1814 Heine went to a business school in Düsseldorf where he learned to read English, the commercial language of the time. Heine was incapable of doing this so he never had enough money to cover his expenses. While at first the plan met with enthusiasm, the concept was gradually bogged down in anti-Semitic, nationalist, and religious criticism; by the time the fountain was finished, there was no place to put it. He who killed himself; The poem consists of five stanzas. [72], Heine's writings were abhorred by the Nazis and one of their political mouthpieces, the Völkischer Beobachter, made noteworthy efforts to attack him. Heine became increasingly critical of despotism and reactionary chauvinism in Germany, of nobility and clerics but also of the narrow-mindedness of ordinary people and of the rising German form of nationalism, especially in contrast to the French and the revolution. All dates are taken from Jeffrey L. Sammons [de]: Heinrich Heine: A Modern Biography (Princeton University Press, 1979). Plaque at the Nazi book burning memorial on Bebelplatz in Berlin, Germany with a quote from Heinrich Heine's play Almansor (written 1821–1822). Düsseldorf was then a small town with a population of around 16,000. [16], Heine was more interested in studying history and literature than law. [42], Heine had had few serious love affairs, but in late 1834 he made the acquaintance of a 19-year-old Paris shopgirl, Crescence Eugénie Mirat, whom he nicknamed "Mathilde". [43], Heine and his fellow radical exile in Paris, Ludwig Börne, had become the role models for a younger generation of writers who were given the name "Young Germany". So, in 1819, Heine went to the University of Bonn (then in Prussia). On the other hand, the Austrian consul in Damascus had assiduously exposed the blood libel as a fraud. Heine thought that such an image suited the oppressive German authorities. Und schüttelst das blonde Köpfchen; ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— The night was cold and mute. German poetry took a more directly political turn when the new Frederick William IV ascended the Prussian throne in 1840. Campe was a liberal who published as many dissident authors as he could. Eines Meeres in dem Sand? Do not smile at the visionary who anticipates the same revolution in the realm of the visible as has taken place in the spiritual. Initially it was thought he might be a "popular monarch" and during this honeymoon period of his early reign (1840–42) censorship was relaxed. The most popular of Heine's political poems was his least typical, Die schlesischen Weber ("The Silesian Weavers"), based on the uprising of weavers in Peterswaldau in 1844. I had this intense feeling for him, you know, the Jewish exile. The opponents of the conservatives, the liberals, wanted to replace absolutism with representative, constitutional government, equality before the law and a free press. Börne was the idol of German immigrant workers in Paris. [5] Heine was also a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life.[6]. It contains the second cycle of North Sea poems, a prose essay on the North Sea as well as a new work, Ideen: Das Buch Le Grand, which contains the following satire on German censorship:[31][32], The German Censors  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— Political life in Germany was divided between conservatives and liberals. That same month, he wrote to Liszt suggesting that he might like to look at a newspaper review he had written of Liszt's performance before his concert; he indicated that it contained comments Liszt would not like. Die Armesünderblum. One event which really galvanised him was the 1840 Damascus Affair in which Jews in Damascus had been subject to blood libel and accused of murdering an old Catholic monk. One way around censorship was to publish dissident works in large print to increase the number of pages beyond 320. This was a collection of already published poems. He learned to hate Hamburg, with its commercial ethos, but it would become one of the poles of his life alongside Paris. Since Börne did not attack religion or traditional morality like Heine, the German authorities hounded him less although they still banned his books as soon as they appeared. Reisebilder II appeared in April 1827. (translation in verse by L.U. Heine responded by dusting off and publishing his unfinished novel about the persecution of Jews in the Middle Ages, Der Rabbi von Bacherach.[47]. In 1835 Gutzkow published a novel, Wally die Zweiflerin ("Wally the Sceptic"), which contained criticism of the institution of marriage and some mildly erotic passages. Mein Fräulein! Im Mondenschein bewegte sich langsam Instead of listing Heine as the author, in songs that could not be burnt, Die Lorelei was said to be written by an “unknown author” (unbekannter Dichter). I saw him. Heine's cousin Carl, the inheritor of Salomon's business, offered to pay him 2,000 francs a year at his discretion. At first he had some hope Louis Napoleon might be a good leader in France but he soon began to share the opinion of Marx towards him as the new emperor began to crack down on liberalism and socialism. [73] When a memorial to Heine was completed in 1926, the paper lamented that Hamburg had erected a "Jewish Monument to Heine and Damascus...one in which Alljuda ruled!". It contains the ironic disillusionment typical of Heine: Allnächtlich im Traume seh ich dich, He also wrote two tragedies, Almansor and William Ratcliff, but they had little success in the theatre. [16], Heine was more interested in studying history and literature than law. This Italian journey resulted in a series of new works: Die Reise von München nach Genua (Journey from Munich to Genoa), Die Bäder von Lucca (The Baths of Lucca) and Die Stadt Lucca (The Town of Lucca). ", Poet, essayist, journalist, literary critic, The German classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: masterpieces of German literature translated into English" 1913–1914. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— Since Börne did not attack religion or traditional morality like Heine, the German authorities hounded him less although they still banned his books as soon as they appeared. (It is also displayed in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and in the pavement in Frankfurt am Main). Sein sie munter, He is best known outside of Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of Lieder (art songs) by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. It had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth. Heine was a radical liberal and one of the first things he did after his arrival was to take part in a parade which violated the Carlsbad Decrees, a series of measures introduced by Metternich to suppress liberal political activity. God has given It includes Heine's poem Where? Heine's play William Ratcliff was used for the libretti of operas by César Cui (William Ratcliff) and Pietro Mascagni (Guglielmo Ratcliff). However, the relationship between author and publisher started well: Campe published the first volume of Reisebilder ("Travel Pictures") in May 1826. It is of significance that Heine makes use of the A-A-B scheme, which is mainly used in the volkslied: Each stanza is written in two rhyming couplets (A-A) and a returning refrain (B). Und gibst mir den Strauß von Zypressen. And forgotten the word that was spoken. When Heine challenged another student, Wiebel, to a duel (the first of ten known incidents throughout his life), the authorities stepped in and Heine was suspended from the university for six months. [53], In October–December 1843, Heine made a journey to Hamburg to see his aged mother and to patch things up with Campe with whom he had had a quarrel.


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