Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He was elected pontifex maximus in 63 bce by a political dodge. The Julii Caesares traced their lineage back to the goddess Venus, but the family was not snobbish or conservative-minded. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The requirements and the costs of a Roman political career in Caesar’s day were high, and the competition was severe; but the potential profits were of enormous magnitude. In 83 bce Lucius Cornelius Sulla returned to Italy from the East and led the successful counter-revolution of 83–82 bce; Sulla then ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. An aunt of the future dictator had married Gaius Marius, a self-made man (novus homo) who had forced his way up to the summit by his military ability and had made the momentous innovation of recruiting his armies from the dispossessed peasants. When equipped to Gaius Julius Caesar only, Increase Quick Card effectiveness of all allies by 15% while on the field. The Roman governing class had consequently come to be hated and discredited at home and abroad. L'assassinat de Jules César est le résultat d'un complot de sénateurs romains qui se surnommaient entre eux les Liberatores et dont les chefs les plus renommés furent Marcus Junius Brutus et Caius Cassius Longinus.L'événement eut lieu à la curie de Pompée attenante au théâtre de Pompée durant les ides de mars (le 15 mars) de l'an 44 av. The assassination plot was led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. bce , Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce , Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce ), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce , and dictator (46–44 bce ), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. A Roman noble won distinction for himself and his family by securing election to a series of public offices, which culminated in the consulship, with the censorship possibly to follow. J.-C., il est gouverneur en Asie et devient très riche(?) Caesar refused and came close to losing not only his property (such as it was) but his life as well. Recht fr… He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61–60 bce. Gaius Julius Caesar[b] (Classical Latin: [%CB%88%C9%A1a%CB%90.i.%CA%8As ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 13 July 100-15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general, and notable author of Latin prose. Julius Caesar had a son with Cleopatra named Caesarion, or "little Caesar". Caesar now worked to undo the Sullan constitution in cooperation with Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius), who had started his career as a lieutenant of Sulla but had changed sides since Sulla’s death. Rome’s victory over Carthage in the Second Punic War (218–201 bce) had made Rome the paramount power in the Mediterranean basin; an influential Roman noble family’s clients (that is, protégés who, in return, gave their patrons their political support) might include kings and even whole nations, besides numerous private individuals. In his absence from Rome, Caesar was made a member of the politico-ecclesiastical college of pontifices; and on his return he gained one of the elective military tribuneships. J.-C. ou 98 av. Though some of the most powerful noble families were patrician, patrician blood was no longer a political advantage; it was actually a handicap, since a patrician was debarred from holding the paraconstitutional but powerful office of tribune of the plebs. Obwohl CAESAR aus patrizischem Hause stammte, war er verwandschaftlich mit den Popularen verbunden, denn seine Tante war mit MARIUS verheiratet. Unlike other vampires, he had less of a human appearance, as his body was heavily aged, with all his teeth being fangs and his fingernails being sharp like claws. Caesar was elected one of the curule aediles for 65 bce, and he celebrated his tenure of this office by unusually lavish expenditure with borrowed money. This class had been partly dispossessed by an economic revolution following on the devastation caused by the Second Punic War. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He found it advisable to remove himself from Italy and to do military service, first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia. In public funeral orations in their honour, Caesar found opportunities for praising Cinna and Marius. Julius Caesar was murdered in the Roman Senate House by a group of nobles on March 15, 44 BCE. Even people who know nothing of Caesar as a historic personality are familiar with his family name as a title signifying a ruler who is in some sense uniquely supreme or paramount—the meaning of Kaiser in German, tsar in the Slavonic languages, and qayṣar in the languages of the Islamic world. J.-C. Il fut questeur en 99 av. Seine Mutter sorgte für eine gute klassische Bildung, wie sie in adligen Kreisen üblich war. Black Friday Sale! It was also not rich or influential or even distinguished. Julius Caesar crafted an alliance with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Pompey to form the First Triumvirate and challenge the power of the Roman Senate. Caesar’s gens (clan) name, Julius (Iulius), is also familiar in the Christian world, for in Caesar’s lifetime the Roman month Quintilis, in which he was born, was renamed “July” in his honour. Caesar then went to Rhodes to study oratory under a famous professor, Molon. In the same year his wife, Cornelia, and his aunt Julia, Marius’s widow, died. En route he was captured by pirates (one of the symptoms of the anarchy into which the Roman nobility had allowed the Mediterranean world to fall). Julius Caesar's family was old Roman nobility, but they were not rich. In 84 bce Caesar committed himself publicly to the radical side by marrying Cornelia, a daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, a noble who was Marius’s associate in revolution. It is improbable that Caesar deliberately sought monarchical power until after he had crossed the Rubicon in 49 bce, though sufficient power to impose his will, as he was determined to do, proved to mean monarchical power. In 74 bce, when Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, renewed war on the Romans, Caesar raised a private army to combat him. Table of Contents. Gaius Julius Caesar, better known as Caligula, is an essential character of Dracula Untold.He is the first vampire to be recorded in history, perhaps the progenitor of the vampire race. Caesar raised his ransom, raised a naval force, captured his captors, and had them crucified—all this as a private individual holding no public office. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This was a difficult task for even the ablest and most gifted noble unless he was backed by substantial family wealth and influence. "Cæsar, Gaius Julius," by George N. Olcott in The New International Encyclopædia, New York: Dodd, Mead and Co. (1905) "Caesar, Gaius Julius," in Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed., 1911) Suetonius, The Life of Julius Caesar; William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar; On his works Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His creditors did not let him leave Rome until Crassus had gone bail for a quarter of his debts; but a military expedition beyond the northwest frontier of his province enabled Caesar to win loot for himself as well as for his soldiers, with a balance left over for the treasury. bce, Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce, Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce, and dictator (46–44 bce), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. Über CAESARS Kindheit und Jugend ist wenig überliefert, meist sind es in ihrer Historizität umstrittene Anekdoten. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? The Greco-Roman society has been extinct for so long that most of the names of its great men mean little to the average, educated modern person. There is evidence, however, that the Julii Caesares, though patricians, had already committed themselves to the antinobility party. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. Caius Julius Caesar III est le fils de Caius Julius Caesar, né vers 135 av. J C Rolfe", "Suetonius, Life of Caesar, Chapters LXXXIII, LXXXIV, LXXXV", "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis? Caesar afterward married Pompeia, a distant relative of Pompey. Caesar consequently divorced Pompeia. Gaius Julius Caesar Hits: 2(33,67)|2(33,67)|1(100)|3(12,25,63) Military Tactics B Increases party's NP damage for 1 turn. Omissions? In 78 bce, after Sulla’s death, he returned to Rome and started on his political career in the conventional way, by acting as a prosecuting advocate—of course, in his case, against prominent Sullan counter-revolutionaries. Learn how Julius Caesar and the Roman army created an empire. Military manpower was supplied by the Roman peasantry. Caesar changed the course of the history of the Greco-Roman world decisively and irreversibly. ", "Julius Caesar's Late Onset Epilepsy: A Case of Historic Proportions", Dickinson College Commentaries: Selections from the, Forum Romanum Index to Caesar's works online,, Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Pages using infobox military person with embed, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with failed verification from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 18:36. Découvrez gratuitement l'arbre généalogique de Gaius Julius Caesar pour tout savoir sur ses origines et son histoire familiale. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … Caius Octavius C. f., devenu par adoption C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, officiellement appelé Augustus à partir de 27 avant J.-C., est né à Rome en 63 avant J.-C. et mort à Nola le 14 août 14 après J.-C. Héritier de Jules César, il fonda sous le nom de « principat » l'Empire romain, qui devait durer, avec … The Julii Caesares did not seem to be in the running. This name has survived, as has Caesar’s reform of the calendar. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. It was true that Sextus Caesar, who was perhaps the dictator’s uncle, had been one of the consuls for 91 bce; and Lucius Caesar, one of the consuls for 90 bce, was a distant cousin, whose son and namesake was consul for 64 bce. Caesar was elected a praetor for 62 bce. Gaius Iulius Caesar (pôvodná výslovnosť [gáius július kajsar], neskoršia a slovenská výslovnosť [gaius július cézar]; iné, menej správne písania: Gaius Julius Caesar, Caius/Gajus/Cajus Iulius/Julius Caesar; skrátene C. Iulius Caesar (C ako Caius); po slovensky aj (Gaius) Július Cézar; * 13. This partial financial recovery enabled him, after his return to Rome in 60 bce, to stand for the consulship for 59 bce. It was evident that the misgovernment of the Roman state and the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility could not continue indefinitely and it was fairly clear that the most probable alternative was some form of military dictatorship backed by dispossessed Italian peasants who had turned to long-term military service. In the uproar in the Senate, Caesar’s motion was defeated. In den vergangenen blutigen Bürgerkriegen standen sich die Popularen unter Führung des MARIUS und die Optimaten unter SULLA politisch gegenüber. En 91 av. The old Roman calendar was inaccurate and manipulated for political purposes. The date of Caesar the dictator’s birth has long been disputed. The day was July 12 or 13; the traditional (and perhaps most probable) year is 100 bce; but if this date is correct, Caesar must have held each of his offices two years in advance of the legal minimum age. Caesar served his quaestorship in the province of Farther Spain (modern Andalusia and Portugal). J.-C., et préteur en 92 av. . After the suppression of Catiline’s conspiracy in 63 bce, Caesar, as well as the millionaire Marcus Licinius Crassus, was accused of complicity. By Caesar’s time, the number of surviving patrician gentes was small; and in the gens Julia the Caesares seem to have been the only surviving family. Caesar’s gens, the Julii, were patricians—i.e., members of Rome’s original aristocracy, which had coalesced in the 4th century bce with a number of leading plebeian (commoner) families to form the nobility that had been the governing class in Rome since then. Contemporary Romans, however, would have known it as the Year of the Consulship of Lucius Valerius Flaccus and Gaius Marius (Caesar's uncle). From the beginning, he probably privately aimed at winning office, not just for the sake of the honours but in order to achieve the power to put the misgoverned Roman state and Greco-Roman world into better order in accordance with ideas of his own. After Crassus's death, Caesar led his army into Italy, defeated Pompey, and claimed the title of dictator. Caesar’s calendar, the Julian calendar, is still partially in force in the Eastern Orthodox Christian countries, and the Gregorian calendar, now in use in the West, is the Julian, slightly corrected by Pope Gregory XIII. Whoever had been consul in this critical year would have had to initiate such legislation, whatever his personal political predilections. J.-C.. Partisan de Marius, qui est marié avec sa sœur Julia. His father, Gaius Caesar, died when Caesar was but 16; his mother, Aurelia, was a notable woman, and it seems certain that he owed much to her. He triumphed in the Roman Civil War but was assassinated by those who believed that he was becoming too powerful. It seems unlikely that either of them had committed himself to Catiline; but Caesar proposed in the Senate a more merciful alternative to the death penalty, which the consul Cicero was asking for the arrested conspirators. The traditional competition among members of the Roman nobility for office and the spoils of office was thus threatening to turn into a desperate race for seizing autocratic power. From 133 bce onward there had been a series of alternate revolutionary and counter-revolutionary paroxysms. Toward the end of the year of his praetorship, a scandal was caused by Publius Clodius in Caesar’s house at the celebration there of the rites, for women only, of Bona Dea (a Roman deity of fruitfulness, both in the Earth and in women). Director of Studies, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1925–55. Julius Caesar was born on the 12 of July 100 BCE, or otherwise the month of Quintilis (before it was renamed July by Caesar to honor the Roman clan of the Julii) during the Roman Calendar year of 654 Ab Urbe Conditia. In spite of the inadequacy of his resources, Caesar seems to have chosen a political career as a matter of course. The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45,, Old and Sold - Biography of Julius Caesar, Public Broadcasting Service - Biography of Julius Caeser, Social Studies for Kids - Biography of Julius Caesar, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Julius Caesar, Heritage History - Julius Caesar - Ada Russell, The History Learning Site - Biography of Julius Caesar, History World - Biography of Julius Caesar, Julius Caesar - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Julius Caesar - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His father died when he was 16, but he received significant support from his mother. J.-C. et décédé en 85 av. A co-conspirator, Decmius Brutus, was Caesar's second heir in his will. 'Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς; Ronald T. Ridley, "The Dictator's Mistake: Caesar's Escape from Sulla,", constitutional government of the Republic, frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, conspiracy to seize control of the republic, [ɪmpɛˈraːtɔr ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈiuːli.ʊs ˈɡaːi.iː ˈfiːli.ʊs ˈɡaːi.iː ˈnɛpoːs ˈkae̯sar ˈpa.trɪs ˈ̯], "Julius Caesar: The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul", "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, by Plutarch (chapter48)", "Suetonius, 'Life of the Caesars, Julius', trans. But Caesar’s name, like Alexander’s, is still on people’s lips throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. Julius Caesar was a political and military genius who overthrew Rome’s decaying political order and replaced it with a dictatorship. In 69 or 68 bce Caesar was elected quaestor (the first rung on the Roman political ladder). Caesar originally named the giraffe "camelopard" since it resembled a camel and a leopard. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Caesar was stabbed many times during his murder but the physician Antistius determined that only one stab wound was fatal. One of the perquisites of the praetorship and the consulship was the government of a province, which gave ample opportunity for plunder. Caesar banned driving carriages on city streets during the first ten hours of daylight. His first target, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, was defended by Quintus Hortensius, the leading advocate of the day, and was acquitted by the extortion-court jury, composed exclusively of senators. Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. By now he had become a controversial political figure. Updates? In 90 bce, Rome’s Italian allies had seceded from Rome because of the Roman government’s obstinate refusal to grant them Roman citizenship, and, as consul, Lucius Caesar had introduced emergency legislation for granting citizenship to the citizens of all Italian ally states that had not taken up arms or that had returned to their allegiance. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Premium Membership is now 50% off! The whole Mediterranean world was, in fact, at the mercy of the Roman nobility and of a new class of Roman businessmen, the equites (“knights”), which had grown rich on military contracts and on tax farming.


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