[58], The first of the UTs had its first light in May 1998, and was offered to the astronomical community on 1 April 1999. For this reason, most exoplanets have been detected with indirect methods. The orange laser beam from the telescope is used for, ALMA antenna en route to Chajnantor plateau, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy, ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre, "Gala Event Celebrates 50 Years of the European Southern Observatory", "A Timeless Sanctuary in Santiago – The ESO Guesthouse, Then and Now", "Claudio Melo Becomes ESO Representative in Chile", "European Extremely Large Telescope to break ground (using dynamite) live later today", "Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites", "Conference Astronomical Site Testing Data in Chile", "Minutes of the ESO Chile Joint Committee", "Astronomers Find First Earth-like Planet in Habitable Zone", "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets", "Raymond Wilson honoured with two prestigious prizes", "Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla", "Southern Sky extrasolar Planet search Programme", Kelly Beatty – Former 'tenth planet' may be smaller than Pluto, "A Giant of Astronomy and a Quantum of Solace", "Unprecedented 16-Year Long Study Tracks Stars Orbiting Milky Way Black Hole", "NASA's Swift Catches Farthest Ever Gamma-Ray Burst", "VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration", "VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work", "First stunning images captured by VISTA Telescope", "VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon", "First Images from the VLT Survey Telescope", "VLT Survey Telescope Center at Naples Web Portal", "ALMA Site Characterization and Monitoring", "ALMA Early Science Cycle 0 Call for Proposals", "Bad Astronomy, FIRST EXOPLANET IMAGE CONFIRMED! Astronomers use this light to study the chemical and physical conditions in these molecular clouds, the dense regions of gas and cosmic dust where new stars are being born. Seen in visible light, these regions of the universe are often dark and obscure due to dust; however, they shine brightly in the millimetre and submillimetre portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The archive contains more than 1.5 million images (or spectra) with a total volume of about 65 terabytes (65,000,000,000,000 bytes) of data. With this measurement, astronomers found that the first generation of stars in our galaxy must have formed soon after the end of the 200-million-year "Dark Age" following the Big Bang.[99]. In August 2016, the European Southern Observatory announced the detection of a planet orbiting the third star in the Alpha Centauri system, Proxima Centauri. Organisational releases cover a range of themes related to ESO operations, including news on current and future observatories, new astronomical instruments and announcements of exhibitions worldwide. All former entries are available on the website. [79] ALMA is a collaboration between East Asia (Japan and Taiwan), Europe (ESO), North America (USA and Canada) and Chile. Its main array will have 50 12-metre (39 ft) antennas acting as a single interferometer. Because the star cannot be older than the universe itself, the universe must be older than this. It complements VISTA by surveying the sky in visible light. The VST and VISTA produce more than 100 terabytes of data per year.[73]. The conclusion was that short-duration bursts could not be caused by a hypernova; instead, it is thought that they originate in the violent merges of neutron stars or black holes. [128][129][130][131][132], ePOD also manages the ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre, an astronomy centre located at the site of the ESO Headquarters in Garching bei München, which was inaugurated 26 April 2018. The possibility exists that one of these planets is covered by oceans; this discovery is an encouraging result in the search for planets which could support life. The temporary office buildings at the ESO Headquarters in Garching being dismantled. On November 15, 1963 Chile was chosen as the site for ESO's observatory. Cerro Paranal is a 2,635-metre-high (8,645 ft) mountain about 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Antofagasta and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the Pacific coast. [13] Because CERN (like ESO) had sophisticated instrumentation, the astronomy organisation frequently turned to the nuclear-research body for advice and a collaborative agreement between ESO and CERN was signed in 1970. It is dry and inhospitable to humans, but a good site for submillimetre astronomy; because water vapour molecules in Earth's atmosphere absorb and attenuate submillimetre radiation, a dry site is required for this type of radio astronomy. In 1966, the first ESO telescope at the La Silla site in Chile began operating. [93][94] The planet, called Proxima Centauri b, could be a potential target for one of the projects of Breakthrough Initiatives. Otto Heckmann was nominated as the organisation's first director general on 1 November 1962. Telescope time is shared between MPG and ESO observing programmes, while operation and maintenance of the telescope are ESO's responsibility. [9] The High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) instrument installed on the older ESO 3.6 m telescope led to the discovery of extrasolar planets, including Gliese 581c—one of the smallest planets seen outside the solar system. Their data showed that the light had similar properties to that of a supernova, and allowed astronomers to link long-duration GRBs with the ultimate explosions of massive stars (hypernovae). The ELT will be the largest visible and near-infrared telescope in the world. This Order amends the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (Immunities and Privileges) Order 2009 (S.I. The secondary mirror position is also adjustable in three directions. ESO is the intergovernmental European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. Astronomers are developing ways to make the large amount of data easily accessible. Four 1.8-metre auxiliary telescopes (ATs), installed between 2004 and 2007, have been added to the VLTI for accessibility when the UTs are used for other projects. An essay contest was prior arranged for schoolchildren in the region concerning the meaning of these names which attracted many entries dealing with the cultural heritage of ESO's host country. [143] ESO also publishes announcements[144] and Pictures of the Week[145] on its website. ESO began its design in early 2006, and aimed to begin construction in 2012. European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (ESO) - description de l'entreprise, bureau ou cabinet avec histoire, informations de contact et adresses, liste des oe uvres (ponts, tunnels, barrages et autres ouvrages d'art ou d'architecture), personnes importantes, littérature, liens, … These include the 3.6 m New Technology Telescope, an early pioneer in the use of active optics, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT), which consists of four individual 8.2 m telescopes and four smaller auxiliary telescopes which can all work together or separately. [87], The Danish 1.54-metre telescope at La Silla participated in the discovery of one of the most Earth-like planets found to date. ESO, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere [26] As decided by the ESO council on 26 April 2010, a fourth site (Cerro Armazones) is to be home to ELT. See other definitions of ESO. EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY - ESO EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), 2 Networks is one of humankind's most profound unanswered questions. While the cause of this phenomenon is unknown, observers have suggested that the black hole may be spinning rapidly. VISTA's infrared view of the Orion Nebula, A 340-million pixel starscape from Paranal, The WR 22 and Eta Carinae regions of the Carina Nebula, The future ALMA array on Chajnantor (artist's rendering), Rare 360-degree Panorama of the Southern Sky, 370-million-pixel starscape of the Lagoon Nebula, The R Coronae Australis region imaged with the Wide Field Imager at La Silla, Coordinates: 48°15′36″N 11°40′16″E / 48.26000°N 11.67111°E / 48.26000; 11.67111, Intergovernmental organization and observatory in Chile, "ESO" redirects here. We use cookies for statistical purposes and to remember your settings. Observations made with these instruments appear in a number of peer-reviewed publications annually; in 2017, more than 1,000 reviewed papers based on ESO data were published.[30]. English - ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. The telescope was designed for very high long-term radial velocity accuracy (on the order of 1 m/s). [133], A collection of photos and videos can be found in the ESO Public Image Gallery and Video Library. 1962-10-05 Paris France History. Founded. It is a 12-metre (39 ft)-diameter telescope operating at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, the largest of its kind in the southern hemisphere. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array observes the universe in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelength ranges, and is the world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date. [77][78] APEX is a precursor of ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array), an astronomical interferometer which ESO and its international partners is building on the Chajnantor plateau. APEX is based on a prototype ALMA antenna that is modified to be operated as single dish radio telescope. ", "VLT to Search for Planets in Alpha Centauri System – ESO Signs Agreement with Breakthrough Initiatives", "Planet Found in Habitable Zone Around Nearest Star – Pale Red Dot campaign reveals Earth-mass world in orbit around Proxima Centauri", "GRAVITY instrument breaks new ground in exoplanet imaging – Cutting-edge VLTI instrument reveals details of a storm-wracked exoplanet using optical interferometry", "A Supermassive Black Hole in a Nearby Galaxy", "The Most Distant Object Yet Discovered in the Universe", "Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked", "Witnessing the Flash from a Black Hole's Cannibal Act", "GCN CIRCULAR, GRB 100814A: Submm observations from APEX, NASA email message", "Science Archive and the Digital Universe", International Virtual Observatory Alliance, "Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe", "Scientists studying universe's expansion win Nobel Prize in Physics", "VLT Captures First Direct Spectrum of an Exoplanet", "Astronomers detect matter torn apart by black hole", "Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known", "A Molecular Thermometer for the Distant Universe", "Groundbreaking Ceremony for ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre", "Products from the education and Public Outreach Department", "Space Scoop: Astronomy News for Children", Webpage for the ESO telescopes at La Silla Observatory, 2011 video explaining the current and planned work of ESO, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=European_Southern_Observatory&oldid=986939818, International scientific organizations based in Europe, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 21:41. The Llano de Chajnantor is a 5,100-metre-high (16,700 ft) plateau in the Atacama Desert, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of San Pedro de Atacama. In 2004, the Very Large Telescope detected a faint glow from an apparent planet orbiting a star about 200 light-years from earth. Created in 1962, ESO has provided astronomers with state-of-the-art research facilities and access to the southern sky. It has been upgraded, including the installation of a new secondary mirror. ESO has built and operated some of the largest and most technologically advanced telescopes. [59] The other telescopes followed suit in 1999 and 2000, making the VLT fully operational. [42], The design of the octagonal enclosure housing the NTT is innovative. The organisation employs about 730 staff members and receives annual member state contributions of approximately €162 million. Here, ESO operates Transnational Joint Calls and Funded Projects, Partner Search for Partnership Initiatives, Strategic Research and Innovation Agendas, European Joint Programme Cofund (EJP Cofund), European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. A year later, this detection was confirmed as the first picture of an exoplanet ever recorded. It was completed in March 2013 in an international collaboration by Europe (represented by ESO), North America, East Asia and Chile.[4][5]. All back copies are available for download. VISTA and the VST are expected to produce large amounts of data; a single picture taken by VISTA has 67 megapixels, and images from OmegaCam (on the VST) will have 268 megapixels. [123][124][125] 0 active Networks Observations of gamma-ray-burst afterglows were coordinated between the VLT and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) to identify the possible counterpart (and its decay) at submillimeter wavelengths.[108]. The observatory hosts visitor instruments, attached to a telescope for the duration of an observational run and then removed. Its instrumentation includes a 67-million-pixel wide-field imager (WFI) with a field of view as large as the full moon,[44] which has taken many images of celestial objects. Its observatories are lo… 2 in Garching bei München Hochschul- und Forschungszentrum, ☎ Telefon 089 32006900 mit ⌚ Öffnungszeiten und Anfahrtsplan Teams of European astronomers will conduct the surveys; some will cover most of the southern sky, while others will focus on smaller areas. It is dedicated to astronomy and astrophysics, and operates the La Silla Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert in Chile, on behalf of its thirteen member states. This wavelength range is also ideal for studying some of the earliest (and most distant) galaxies in the universe, whose light has been redshifted into longer wavelengths from the expansion of the universe.[75][76]. [66], Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the VLT, sharing observational conditions. Qreer.com team The array will be able to probe the universe at millimetre and submillimeter wavelengths with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution, with vision up to ten times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope. Should you have any recommendations or questions, please don’t hesitate and send us an e-mail using this link Have a nice day! The site is 750 metres (2,460 ft) higher than the Mauna Kea Observatory and 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) higher than the VLT in Cerro Paranal.


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